Artificial intelligence (AI) poses a number of unique challenges for freedom of expression. Without safeguards, AI may erode the rule of law.
Transparency is another issue; many of the systems in use and in development are not transparent, meaning civil society scrutiny is not possible. It is rarely clear where and when such systems are being used at all, and the repercussions of AI-powered surveillance would be particularly serious.
There are also various concerns stemming from the ways in which AI systems collect and use data, and the intersection of AI with privacy rights – from applications in surveillance to ‘smart objects’.
 ARTICLE 19 and Privacy International, Privacy and Freedom of Expression In the Age of Artificial Intelligence, April 2018, available at https://www.article19.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Privacy-and-Freedom-of-Expression-In-the-Age-of-Artificial-Intelligence-1.pdf