Johannesburg Principles on national security, freedom of expression and access to information

These Principles were adopted on 1 October 1995 by a group of experts in international law, national security, and human rights convened by ARTICLE 19 in collaboration with the Centre for Applied Legal Studies of the University of the Witwatersrand, in Johannesburg.

The Principles are based on international and regional law and standards relating to the protection of human rights, evolving state practice (as reflect-ed, inter alia, in judgments of national courts), and the general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.

These Principles acknowledge the enduring applicability of the Siracusa Principles on the Limitation and Derogation Provisions in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Paris Minimum Standards of Human Rights Norms In a State of Emergency.

The Johannesburg Principles on National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information.

关于国家安全、言论自由和使用信息的 约翰内斯堡原则.

Los Principios de Johannesburgo sobre la Seguridad Nacional, la Libertad de Expresión y el Acceso a la Información.

Les Principes de Johannesburg sur la Sécurité Nationale, la Liberté d’Expression, et l’Accès à l’Information.