#JournoSafe Resource Hub

What is the #JournoSafety Hub?

The safety of journalists and social communicators affects to the quality of democracy and the right to freedom of expression and access of information. This #JournoSafety Hub collects international standards and other key resources to support the work of those who work on the protection of journalists, in particular for their advocacy work.

What are you going to find on the #JournoSafety Hub?

  1. International Human Rights Standards
  2. Research and Reports
  3. Manuals and Guidelines

1. International Human Rights Standards

The Right of Expression: Starting from the beginning

1.1 International Standards


Title
AuthorYear
General Comment No. 37 on the Right of peaceful assemblyHuman Rights Committee2020
General Comment No. 36 on the right to lifeHuman Rights Committee2018
Resolution 2222 United Nations Security Council (UNSC)2015
General Comment No. 34 on freedoms of opinion and expressionHuman Rights Committee2011
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)United Nations General Assembly (UNGA resolution 2200A, XXI)1976
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)United Nations General Assembly (UNGA 217 A)1948

1.2. Other international human rights standards framing the safety of journalists

Human Rights Defenders

TitleAuthorYear
Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental FreedomsUnited Nations General Assembly (UNGA Resolution A/RES/53/144)1998
Commentary to the Declaration on human rights defenders: an essential guide to the right to defend human rightsTwo Special Rapporteurs on the situation of human rights defenders, Hina Jilani (2000–2008) and Margaret Sekaggya (2008–2014)2011

Environment

Business and Human Rights

TitleAuthorYear
UN Guiding Principles  Business and Human RightsUN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights2011
Convention 190 on Violence and HarassmentInternational Labour Organization (ILO)2019

Organised Crime and Corruption

1.3. Safety of journalists: international standards

UN resolutions

UN Reports on the implementation of UN resolutions on the Safety of Journalists 

Other UN texts relevant to the SoJ

Women

UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences

Other UN text relevant to the SoJ

UN Plan of Action

SDGs

UN Special Procedures Reports related to the Safety of Journalists

Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (FoE)

TitleAuthorYear
Reinforcing media freedom and the safety of journalists in the digital age (A/HRC/50/29)Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (FoE)2022
The protection of journalists and media freedom
(A/HRC/20/17)
Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (FoE)2012
Groups in need of attention, limitations to the right to freedom of expression, and protection of journalists  (A/HRC/14/23)Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (FoE)2010
Limitations to the right to freedom of expression, safety and protection of journalists and media professionals in conflict zones, and right of access to information in situations of extreme poverty
(A/HRC/11/4)
Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (FoE)2009
Access to information, safety and protection of journalists and media professionals, legal restrictions on freedom of expression, and freedom of opinion and expression and the realization of other human Rights (A/HRC/7/14)Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (FoE)2008

Special Rapporteur on the situation of Human Rights Defenders (HRDs)

TitleAuthorYear
Death threats and killings of human rights defendersSpecial Rapporteur on the situation of Human Rights Defenders (HRDs)2020
Impunity for human rights violations committed against human rights defendersSpecial Rapporteur on the situation of Human Rights Defenders (HRDs)2019
Selected groups of defenders at risk: journalists and media workers, defenders working on land and environment issues; and youth and student defendersSpecial Rapporteur on the situation of Human Rights Defenders (HRDs)2012
Violations committed against defenders by non-State actorsSpecial Rapporteur on the situation of Human Rights Defenders (HRDs)2010

Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions

TitleAuthorYear
Investigation, accountability and prevention of intentional state killings of human rights defenders, journalists and prominent dissidents)Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions2019
Annex to the Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions: Investigation into the unlawful death of Mr. Jamal KhashoggiSpecial Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions2019
Protection of the right to life of journalistsSpecial Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions2012

Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences

TitleAuthorYear
Violence against women journalistsSpecial Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences2020
Report on online violence against womenSpecial Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences2018

Joint declarations

TitleAuthorYear
Joint statement on the Safety of Journalists on the occasion of the World Press Freedom Day 20222022
Joint declaration on freedom of expression and elections in the digital age of the (UN), the (OSCE) and the OAS) Special Rapporteurs.the (UN), the (OSCE) and the OAS) Special Rapporteurs2020
Twentieth Anniversary of the Joint Declaration: Challenges to Freedom of Expression in the Next Decade2019
Joint Declaration on media independence and diversity in the digital age2018
Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and “Fake News”, Disinformation and Propaganda2017
United Nations and Inter–American Commission experts on freedom of expression today expressed their concern at measures taken by the interim Federal Government in Brazil2016
High Time to Pull the Plug of Televised Reprisals Against Rights Defenders in Venezuela2015
Joint declaration on freedom of expression and responses to conflict situations2015
International Freedom of Expression Rapporteurs Urge Stronger Protection of Journalists Covering Conflicts2014
Joint Declaration on Universality and the Right to Freedom of Expression2014
Joint Declaration on Violence Against Journalists and Media Workers in the Context of Protests2013
Joint Declaration on Surveillance Programs and their Impact on Freedom of Expression2013
Joint Declaration on the Protection of Freedom of Expression and Diversity in the Digital Terrestrial Transition2013
Joint Declaration on Crimes against Freedom of Expression2012
UN and IACHR Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression Joint Declaration about Free Speech on the Internet2012
Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and the Internet2011
Joint Statement On Wikileaks from the UN Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression and the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter–American Commission on Human Rights2010
Tenth Anniversary Joint Declaration: Ten key challenges to freedom of expression in the next decade2010
UN Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression Joint Declaration on the Challenges to Freedom of Expression in the Next Decade2010
Joint Statement on the Media and Elections2009
Joint Declaration on Defamation of Religions, and Anti–Terrorism and Anti–Extremism Legislation2008
Joint Declaration on Diversity in Broadcasting2007
Joint Declaration On Publishing Confidential Information, Openness of National and International Public Bodies, Freedom of Expression and Cultural/Religious Tensions, and Impunity in Cases of Attacks Against Journalists2006
UN Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression Joint Declaration on International Mechanisms for Promoting Freedom of Expression2006
The ACHPR Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression and the IACHR Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression joint declaration2005
Joint Declaration on the Internet and on Anti–Terrorist Measures2005
Joint Declaration on Access to Information and on Secrecy Legislation2004
Joint Declaration On the regulation of the Media, On the Restrictions on Journalists, and On Investigating Corruption2003
UN Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression Joint Declaration on International Mechanisms for Promoting Freedom of Expression  2002
Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and the Administration of Justice, Commercialisation and Freedom of Expression, and Criminal Defamation2002
Joint Declaration about Countering Terror, Broadcasting and The Internet2001
Joint Declaration about Censorship by Killing and Defamation2000
First Joint Declaration by the Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression1999

UNESCO Resolutions, Decisions, and Declarations on Safety of Journalists

General Conference Resolutions

UNESCO Director–General’s Report on the Safety of Journalists and the Danger of Impunity

World Press Freedom Day Declarations

Universal Periodic Review (UPR)

Other sources

TitleAuthorYear
Global Pledge on Media FreedomMedia Freedom Coalition2019
Toolkit on the Safety of Journalists for the Personnel of the Diplomatic MissionsCommunity of Democracies2017
Paris Declaration4th Global Summit of the Open Government Partnership2016

Regional Standards

African Human Rights System

Inter-American Human Rights System

TitleAuthorYear
Inter–American Democratic Charter2011
Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression2000
Background and Interpretation of the Declaration of Principles2000
American Convention on Human Rights “Pact of San José. Costa Rica”1969
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man1948
Resolution of the OAS General Assembly is a step forward for Freedom of expression and safety of journalistsGeneral Assembly of the Organization of American States (OAS) 2017
Annual ReportsSpecial Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter–American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) 
Country ReportsSpecial Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter–American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) 
Women Journalists and Freedom of Expression Discrimination and gender-based violence faced by women journalists in the exercise of their professionSpecial Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter–American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR)2008
Silenced Zones: Highly dangerous areas for the exercise of freedom of expressionSpecial Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter–American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR)2006
Violence Against Journalists and Media Workers: Inter-American Standards and National Practices on Prevention, Protection and Prosecution of PerpetratorsSpecial Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter–American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR)2013
Women and freedom of expressionSpecial Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter–American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR)1999
Decisions of the Inter–American Court of Human RightsInter–American Court of Human Rights
Jineth Bedoya and Other v Colombia  Inter–American Court of Human Rights2021
Carvajal Carvajal v. ColumbiaInter–American Court of Human Rights2018
Herzog et al. v Brazil  Inter–American Court of Human Rights2018

Council of Europe

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) 

European Union

More information

IFEX Explainers

A19 Resources

2. Research and reports

Safety of journalists is understood to be an important requirement for unhindered practice of journalism and freedom of expression. Despite this, unlike the issues of journalism and freedom of expression, journalists’ and social communicators’ safety has not been a very popular topic of academic research. For this reason, this hub focus on this specific research question.

2.1. Violence against Journalists

TitleAuthorYear
Threats to media freedom in Europe – Annual Report 2021International Press Institute (IPI) 2021
MFRR Monitoring Report: Press Freedom Under Strain in EUMedia Freedom Rapid Response (MFRR)2021
How close should we get? Media and conflictDW Akademie2021
Safe. Strong. Viable. The symbiosis between media safety and media viability.DW Akademie2021
Advice on Promoting More Effective Investigations into Abuses Against JournalistsIndependent High Level Panel of Legal Experts on Media Freedom2020
Report on Providing Safe Refuge to Journalists at Risk. An International Bar Association Human Rights Institute ReportIndependent High Level Panel of Legal Experts on Media Freedom2020
A Pressing Concern: Protecting and Promoting Press Freedom by Strengthening Consular Support to Journalists at RiskIndependent High Level Panel of Legal Experts on Media Freedom2020
Report on the Use of Targeted Sanctions to Protect JournalistsIndependent High Level Panel of Legal Experts on Media Freedom2020
Diagnóstico sobre funcionamiento del mecanismoOficina en México del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos a solicitud de la Subsecretaría de Derechos Humanos de la Secretaría de Gobernación 2019
Legal Responses to Online Harassment and Abuse of Journalists: Perspectives from Finland, France and IrelandOSCE 2019
The safety of women journalists: Breaking the cycle of silence and violenceInternational Media Support (IMS) 2019
Newsroom Best Practices for Addressing Online Violence against JournalistsInternational Press Institute (IPI) 2019
Defending JournalismInternational Media Support (IMS) 2017
International Declaration on the Protection of JournalistsInternational Media Support (IMS) 2016
El enfoque de género en la protección a defensoras de derechos humanos: Las experiencias de México y HondurasAsociadas por lo justo (JASS) Centro por la Justicia y el Derecho Internacional (CEJIL) y Protection International (PI)2016
Americas: The situation of State Protection mechanisms for Human Rights DefendersAmnesty International2012
Safeguarding Media Rights and Ending Impunity in Nepal International Media Support (IMS) 2012
Impunidad deja expuestos a los periodistas hondureños International Media Support (IMS) 2010
Between Radicalisation and Democratisation in an Unfolding Conflict: Media in PakistanInternational Media Support (IMS)2009
Press Freedom in Mexico: The Shadow of Impunity and Violence International Media Support (IMS)2008
Columbia Global Freedom of Expression databaseColumbia University

Academic Research on Safety of Journalists 

TitleAuthorYear
Final Report on Freedom of Expression and Protection of Journalistic Sources  International Legal Research Group on Freedom of Expression and the Protection of Journalistic Sources.2016
Supporting Freedom of Expression: A Practical Guide to Developing Specialised Safety Mechanisms. UNESCO and Centre for Law and DemocracyMendel, Toby 2016
Prevent and Punish: In search of solutions to fight violence against journalists. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)Bertoni, Eduardo 2016
Violence and Harassment against Women in the News Media: A Global PictureInternational Women’s Media Foundation and the International News Safety Institute 2014
Institutional Design and Effectiveness of the Agencies Charged with Protecting Journalists and Investigating Crimes against the Press: Mexico, Colombia and Guatemala. Universidad de PalermoBertoni, Eduardo and Torres, Natalia 2012
Safety of Journalists Research PackBrowne, Evie and Probert, Thomas (eds)2012
Mexican Journalists: An Investigation of Their Emotional Health. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Vol. 25, Issue 4, pp. 480 – 483Feinstein, Anthony 2012
Digital and Mobile Security for Mexican Journalists and Bloggers.  A project of Freedom House and International Center for JournalistsSierra, Jorge Luis 2012
Crimes and Punishment: The Killing of filipino Journalists. Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication (AIJC)Rosario-Braid, Florangel, Maslog, Crispin C., Tuazon, Ramon R. 2012
The Initiative on Impunity and the Rule of Law – Safety and Protection of Journalists: A Responsibility for the World Centre for Law, Justice and Journalism (CLJJ) at City University London and Centre for Freedom of the Media (CFOM), University of Sheffield 2011
Journalist in Armed Conflicts – Protection Measures in the International Humanitarian Law. Paper presented at the SGIR 7th Pan-European International Relations Conference, StockholmFarthofer, Hilde 2010
Le rôle des médias et l’accès des journalistes sur le terrain des hostilités : une garantie supplémentaire du respect du droit international humanitaire?. In: Les tiers aux conflits armés et la protection des populations civiles. Sorel, Jean-Marc and Fouchard, Isabelle (eds), pp. 85 – 106Balguy-Gallois, Alexandre 2010
Le rôle des médias et l’accès des journalistes sur le terrain des hostilités : une garantie supplémentaire du respect du droit international humanitaire?. In: Les tiers aux conflits armés et la protection des populations civiles. Sorel, Jean-Marc and Fouchard, Isabelle (eds), pp. 85 – 106Balguy-Gallois, Alexandre 2010
Impunity in Nepal – A Study of Excesses During the Transition. Center for Investigative Journalism (CIJ)Bhattarai, Binod, Gaunle, Shiva Dhakal, Bimal Prasad, Bhuwan, K.C., Ganga, B.C. & Narayan Shah, Tula 2010
Are Foreign Correspondents Redundant? The Changing Face of International News. Challenges December 2010. Edited by Bundy, Colin, Gardam, Tim, Garton Ash, Timothy, Levy, David, Linnebank, Geert and Lloyd, John. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, University of OxfordSambrook, Richard 2010
Prosecuting War Crimes at Balibo Under Australian Law: The Killing of Five Journalists in East Timor by Indonesia. Sydney Law Review. Vol. 31, pp. 83 – 120Saul, Ben 2009
The International Protection of Journalists in Armed Conflict and Other Violent Situations. Australian Journal of Human Rights. Vol. 14(1), pp. 99 – 140Saul, Ben 2009
The Protection of Journalists in Armed Conflicts. In: German Yearbook of International Law. Vol. 51, pp. 289 – 320Geiss, Robin 2008
Killing the Messenger: Report of the Global Inquiry By The International News Safety Institute Into the Protection of JournalistsInternational News Safety Institute2007
Unspoken – Foreign Correspondents and Sexual Abuse. The Columbia Journalism ReviewMatloff, Judith 2007
The protection of journalists and news media and personnel in armed conflict. International Review of the Red Cross. Vol. 86, No. 853. pp. 37 – 67Balguy-Gallois, Alexandre2004
Options for media development in IraqJayasekera, Rohan 2004
The First Casualty: The War Correspondent as Hero and Myth-Maker from the Crimea to IraqKnightley, Phillip 2004
Two Murders and a LieMari, Jean-Pail, Reporters Without Borders (RWB)2004
Remaking the Pen Mightier Than the Sword: An Evaluation of the Growing Need for the International Protection of Journalists. In:  Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law. Vol. 30, pp. 505 – 542Howard, Dylan2002
The ICTY Prosecutor and the Review of the NATO Bombing Campaign against the Federal Republic of Yougoslavia, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 503 – 529Benvenuti, Paolo 2001
La protection des journalistes en mission périlleuse dans les zones de conflit arméBoiton-Malherbe, Sylvie 1989
International Humanitarian Law and the Protection of Media Personnel. University of New South Wales Law Journal. Vol. 9, pp. 1 – 16Kirby, Michael and Jackson, Lawrence J. 1986

UNESCO World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development

Regional overview

World Press Freedom Day. Journalism Safety Research Conferences 

TitleAuthorYear
5th World Press Freedom Day (WPFD) Academic Conference on the Safety of Journalists was Organised by UNESCO, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands and Leiden University.2020
4th Academic Conference on the Safety of Journalists Organised by UNESCO, the Department of Journalism and Communication at Makerere University and the research group MEKK (media, war and conflict) at OsloMet University, in partnership with the University of Malaga and the University of Sheffield (Centre for Freedom of the Media) during World Press Freedom Day in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia2019
3rd World Press Freedom Day (WPFD) Paper presentations are available: World Press Freedom Day Research Conference on the Safety of Journalists. Ghana.
Conference on the Safety of JournalistsThe conference was organized by UNESCO in collaboration with Hong Kong Baptist University during World Press Freedom Day in Jakarta, Indonesia2017
The Research Conference Organised by UNESCO and the UNESCO Chair at University of Gothenburg in collaboration with IAMCR, University of Sheffield, University of Helsinki and University of Tampere2016

OsloMet

International Conference on the Safety of journalists

TitleAuthorYear
Risk, Resistance, ResilienceOsloMet2020
Safety of Journalists. Digital SafetyOsloMet2019
The chilling, effectsOsloMet2018
Covering Conflict and Sensitive IssuesOsloMet2017

OsloMet Research

2.2. Digital Safety

2.3. Gender and Protection of Journalists

TitleAuthorYear
Sexual Harassment In The Media – Africa ReportWomen in News (WIN) 2021
Status of Women in U.S. MediaWomen’s Media Center 2021
Ser periodista en Twitter: violencia de género digital en América LatinaLina Cuellar y Sandra Chaher2020
Sexism’s toll on journalism Reporters Without Borders (RWB) 2021
Online Violence against Women Journalists: A Global Snapshot of Incidence and ImpactsUNESCO2020
Reporting on violence against women and girls: a handbook for journalistsUNESCO2019
La grande conversation: manuel de lutte contre la violence à l’égard des femmes et des filles dans et à travers les médiasUNESCO2019
All Things Being Equal: Gender Equality Guidelines from Public Service MediaEuropean Broadcaster’s Union (EBU) 2019
Women Journalists and Online HarassmentUniversity of Texas at Austin, Center for Media Engagement 2018
Women Journalists and Freedom of ExpressionInter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression 2018
IFJ Survey: two-thirds of women journalists suffered gender-based online attacksInternational Federation of Journalists (IFJ) 2018
Attacks and Harassment. The Impact on Female Journalists and Their ReportingInternational Women’s Media Foundation (IWMF) and Trollbusters 2018
Global Report on Status of Women in News Media International Women’s Media Foundation 2018
Women Journalist’s Digital SecurityARTICLE 19 and Association of Media Women in Kenya 2016
Gendering War and Peace Reporting: Some Insights – Some Missing Links, International Clearinghouse on Children NordicomBerit von der Lippe and Rune Ottosen (eds.) 2016
Attacks on the Press: Gender and Media Freedom WorldwideCommittee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) 2016
Inside the News: Challenges and Aspirations of Women Journalists in Asia and the PacificUN Women 2015
“Inside the news: challenges and aspirations of women journalists in Asia and the PacificUNESCO2015
Global Survey on Gender and Media: Preliminary Findings UNESCO2015
Media and Gender: A Scholarly Agenda for the Global Alliance on Media GenderUNESCO2014
Violence and Harassment Against Women in the News Media: A Global PictureInternational News Safety Institute (INSI) and the International Women’s Media Foundation (IMWF) 2014
Global research project investigates violence against women journalistsInternational Women’s Media Foundation 2013
No Woman’s Land: On the Frontline with Female Reporters. International News Safety InstituteHannah Storm and Helena Williams (eds.)2012
Gender–Sensitive Indicators for Media. Framework of indicators to gauge gender sensitivity in media operations and contentUNESCO2012
European Centre for Press and Media Freedom Women’s Reporting PointEuropean Centre for Press and Media Freedom
Gender Statistics DatabaseEuropean Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) 

2.4 Research Agenda on Safety of Journalists, model courses and MOOCs

3. Manuals and Guidelines

We are here to help. Stay current on the latest manuals and guidelines related with physical, psychosocial and digital safety of journalists and social communicators. Also you will find information about gender and safety and other resource hubs.

3.1. Physical safety, self-protection

TitleAuthorYear
The UN and the Safety of Journalists Resource Kit for UN Staff by the UN Focal Points Network on Safety of JournalistsUNESCO2021
Civil Unrest ResourcesACOS Alliance2021
Media4democracy.eu  Protecting the safety of journalists. Protecting Freedom of Expression. A Handbook for EU DelegationsArticle 19, DW Akademie, European Partnership for Democracy,Free Press Unlimited, Particip (lead), Thomson Foundation2020
Safety of Journalists Covering Protests – Preserving Freedom of the Press During Times of Civil UnrestUNESCO2020
Philippine Journalists’ Safety GuideNational Union of Journalists of the Philippines2020
Physical Safety: Mitigating Sexual ViolenceCommittee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)2019
Physical Safety: Solo ReportingCommittee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)2019
Physical Safety: War ReportingCommittee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)2019
Physical Safety: Natural Disasters and Extreme WeatherCommittee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)2018
Physical safety: Terrorist attacksCommittee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)2018
Physical and digital safety: Civil disorderCommittee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)2018
Face à la Montée des Risques en Période Électorale: Petit Manuel de Securité pour les JournalistesJournaliste en Danger2018
Safe + Secure HandbookDoc Society2017
Safety Net Manual: Guidelines for Journalists in Extraordinary or Emergency SituationsSouth East Europe Media Organization2017
Workbook on Security: Practical Steps for Human Rights Defenders at RiskFront Line Defenders2016
The Holistic Security ManualFront Line Defenders (FLD)2016
Safety guide for journalists: a handbook for reporters in high-risk environmentsReporters without Borders (RWB) and UNESCO2015
Defence Handbook for Journalists and Bloggers. On freedom of expression and freedom of informationprinciples in international lawThomson Reuters Foundation et.al2015
UNESCO Journalists’ Safety Indicators-National LevelUNESCO2015
Applying UNESCO’s Journalists’ Safety Indicators (JSIs) – A Practical Guidebook to Assist ResearchersUNESCO2015
GroundTruth: A Field Guide for CorrespondentsThe GroundTruth Project2015
Reporting Atrocities: A Toolbox for Journalists Covering Violent Conflict and Atrocities Small World News2011
SpeakSafe: Media Workers’ Toolkit for Safer Online and Mobile PracticesInternews2012
CPJ Journalist Security Guide – Covering the News in a dangerous and changing worldFrank Smyth, Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)2012
Coaching Manual for Media Support during ElectionsInternational Media Support, Media & Democracy Group and Réseau Liberté2006
Media + Elections: An Elections Reporting HandbookRoss Howard2004
Reporting for Change: A Handbook for Local Journalists in Crisis AreasInstitute for War and Peace Reporting2004
Live News: A Survival Guide for JournalistsInternational Federation of Journalists (IFJ)2003
Charter for the Safety of Journalists Working in War Zones or Dangerous AreasReporters Without Borders (RWB)2002
SAFE. Securing Access to Free expressionIREX Safe
The Field Guide to Security TrainingOpen News
Online Harassment Field ManualPen America
The Journalist’s ToolboxSociety for Professional Journalists
Security in–a–Box for human rights defenders and journalistsTactical Technology Collective
Information Security for JournalistsCentre for Investigative Journalism (CIJ)

3.2 Psychosocial safety

TitleAuthorYear
Dart Centre for Journalism and Trauma ResoursesDart Centre for Journalism and Trauma2022
Resources for Reporters Coping with TraumaGlobal Investigative Journalism Network2021
Leading Resilience: A Guide for Editors and Managers. Working with Freelancers Exposed to Trauma Working withACOS Alliance2020
Philippine Journalists’ Safety GuideNational Union of Journalists of the Philippines2020
Fear, trauma andlocal journalists:Cross-border lessons inpsychosocial support forjournalistsIMS2019
How Journalists Can Protect Their Mental Health Before, During and After AssignmentsIREX2019
Psychological Safety: Online Harassment and How to Protect Your Mental HealthCommittee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)2019
Psychological SafetyCommittee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)2018
Safety Guide for Journalists: A Handbook for Reporters in High-Risk EnvironmentsUNESCO and Reporters Without Borders2017
Covering Trauma: Six Tips for Protecting Your Mental HealthDart Center for Journalism and Trauma2017
Journalism and Vicarious TraumaFirst Draft2017
Making Secondary Trauma a Primary Issue: A Study of Eyewitness Media and Vicarious Trauma on the Digital FrontlineEyewitness Media Hub2015
Reporting Atrocities: A Toolbox for Journalists Covering Violent Conflict and AtrocitiesInternews2014
Journalist Security Guide: Covering the News in a Dangerous and Changing WorldCommittee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)2012
Healing the messenger: A journalist’s trauma bookletIMS2009
Resources for Wellbeing & Stress ManagementFront Line Defenders
Coping with Emotional Impact on Online HarassmentInternational Press Institute

3.3. Digital safety

TitleAuthorYear
Your smartphone and you: A handbook to modern mobile maintenanceFreedom of the Press Foundation2022
GCA Cybersecurity Toolkit for JournalistsGlobal Cyber Alliance (GCA)2022
Hostile Environment and First Aid Training (HEFAT) coursesInternational Women’s Media Foundation (IWMF)2022
The New York Times Digital Security Education HubThe New York Times 2022
Digital security training for activists and journalistsTotem2022
CPJ Safety Advisory: Journalist targets of Pegasus spywareCommittee To Protect Journalists (CPJ)2021
Training Resource HubMedia Defence2021
Philippine Journalists’ Safety GuideNational Union of Journalists of the Philippines2020
Digital Security for Journalists Requires an Adaptable ToolkitGrégoire Pouget, president and co–founder of Nothing2Hide2020
Threat Check. Create your own digital safety planDW Akademie2020
Threat modeling guideHow to identify digital risks in international development projectsDW Akademie2020
Digital Safety KitCommittee To Protect Journalists (CPJ)2019
Eight Prevention Tips to Secure Your Mobile PhoneFreedom of Press Foundation2019
Your Smartphone and You: A Handbook to Modern Mobile MaintenanceFreedom of Press Foundation2019
A Cheat Sheet for Open Source Digital Security OptionsGlobal Investigative Journalism Network2019
6 Tips for Responding to Online Attacks Against JournalistsGlobal Investigative Journalism Network2019
Guidelines to fight back collectively against online trolling of women journalistsInternational Federation of Journalists (IFJ)2019
Measures for Newsrooms and Journalists to Address Online HarassmentInternational Press Institute2019
Digital First Aid KitCIviCERT2019
Dealing with Hate Campaigns: Toolkit for JournalistsDart Center for Journalism and Trauma2019
The Motherboard Guide to Not Getting HackedVICE2018
Online Harassment Field ManualPen America2018
Self-Doxing GuideAccess Now2018
The Wired Guide to Digital SecurityWired2017
Cyber Harassment HelplineDigital Rights Foundation2017
Protecting Journalism Sources in the Digital AgeUNESCO2017
Journalists In Distress: Securing Your Digital LifeCanadian Journalists for Freedom of Expression2017
Digital Security Guide Centre for Law and Democracy (CLD) in collaboration with International Media Support (IMS), FOJO Media Institute and the Myanmar Press Council (MPC)2017
A Guide to Staying Online if the Internet or Social Media Gets Blocked in Your CountryQuartz Africa2017
Digital First Aid KitDigital Defenders Partnership et al.2016
FlipcardsMe and my Shadow2016
Security in a Box – Digital Security Tools and TacticsFront Line Defenders & Tactical Tech
Cyber security training for journalists: Tips and tricks to keep your communications safeDmitri Vitaliev, European Federation of Journalists (EFJ) and the European Trade Union Institute (ETUI)2015
Speak Up & Stay Safe(r): A Guide to Protecting Yourself from Online HarassmentFeminist Frequency2015
Building digital safety for journalism: a survey of selected issuesUNESCO2015
helpdesk.rsf.orgReporters Without Borders (RWB)  2013
SpeakSafe: Media Workers’ Toolkit for Safer Online and Mobile PracticesInternews2012
Guidelines for Talking to Friends and Loved OnesPen America
Online Harassment Field GuidePen America
A Journalist’s Resource for Safe and Ethical ReportingReporters Without Borders (RWB)  
Online Harassment ResourcesIheartmob
Cybersecurity Toolkit for JournalistsGlobal Cyber Alliance
Measures for Newsrooms and Journalists to Address Online HarassmentInternational Press Institute (IPI)
Safety RepositoryMoney Trail
ExplainersPrivacy International
C.O.A.C.HCrash Override
Data Detox KitTactical Tech
Journalists in Distress: Securing Your Digital Life(Canadian Journalists for Free Expression
Privacy AnalyserPrivacy.net
The Digital First Aid KitDigital Defenders Partnership and more than a dozen NGOs
Surveillance Self–DefenseElectronic Frontier Foundation
Digital Security HelplineAccess Now
TOTEMFree Press Unlimited and Greenhost
Journalism Security GuideCommittee To Protect Journalists (CPJ)Work on progress

3.4. Gender and safety

TitleAuthorYear
Online Violence Response HubCoalition Against Online Violence2021
The Chilling: global trends in online violence against women journalists; research discussion paperJulie Posetti et al. ICFJ and UNESCO2021
Sexual Harassment ToolkitWAN-IFRA Women in News and City, University of London2021
ICFJ-UNESCO Global Study: Online Violence Against Women JournalistsJulie Posetti et al. ICFJ and UNESCO 2020
Videos focus on legal remedies, protecting against emotional traumaInternational Press Institute (IPI)2020
OSCE Resource Guide on the Safety of Female Journalists Online for policy makersOrganization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)2020
(SOFJO) Safety of Women Journalists OnlineOrganization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)2020
ARTICLE 19’s policy briefing on Freedom of Expression and Women’s Equality)Article 192020
ARTICLE 19’s policy briefing on Online Harassment and Abuse against Women Journalists and Major Social Media Platform Article 192020
The Glass Room: Misinformation EditionTactical Tech2020
Are women at higher risk to online scams? Online harassment statisticsComparitech2020
Psychological Safety: Online Harassment and How to Protect Your Mental HealthCPJ2019
Safe Sisters GuideInternews & Defend Defenders2018
The Empowering Internet Safety Guide for WomenvpnMentor2018
Sexual harassment in the media – A practical guide for employers & employeesWomen in the News2018
If You’re Being Harassed: 12-Step ApproachPress Forward2018
The Complete Guide to Understanding and Dealing with Online TrollsRagen Chaistain2018
UN experts urge Stats and companies to address online gender-based abuse but warn against censorshipUN Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner2017
What if…? Safety Handbook for Women JournalistsUNESCO and the International Association of Women in Radio and Television (IAWRT) 2017
Let’s Talk: Personal Boundaries, Safety & Women in JournalismThe Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma 2017
New Challenges to Freedom of Expression: Countering Online Abuse of Female JournalistsOrganization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Representative on Freedom of the Media 2016
“Twitter Abuse: Women journalists get more threats”BBC, Inside Europe Blog 2015
Speak Up & Stay Safe(r): A Guide to Protecting Yourself from Online HarassmentFeminist Frequency2015
The Silencing Crime: Sexual Violence and Journalists,Committee To Protect Journalists (CPJ)2011
Safety Tips for Female Correspondents. How to minimize the risk of sexual assault while on the job Judith Matloff, Columbia Journalism Review2011
Measures for Newsrooms and Journalists to Address Online HarassmentInternational Press Institute
Campaign – against online abuse!International Federation of Journalist (IFJ) Byte Back
CPJ security guide addendum on sexual-aggression Committee To Protect Journalists (CPJ)
Online Harassment Field ManualPen America
Know Your Rights At WorkAmerican Association of University Women (AAUW)
Online Security Guide for Every WomanDiy Chayn
OnlineSOS Action CenterOnlineSOS
Support to human rights defenders under digital threatDigital Defenders Partnership
Surveillance Self-Defense: tips, tools and how-tos for safer online communicationsElectronic Frontier Foundation
Emergency Checklist for Digital SecurityHamara Internet
HACK*BLOSSOMA DIY Guide to Feminist Cybersecurity  Noah Kelley
Speak Up & Stay Safe(r): A Guide to Protecting Yourself from Online HarassmentFeminist Frequency
Take Control of Technology to End Gender-Based Violence: Be SafeTake Back the Tech

3.5. Other Resource hubs

TitleAuthorYear
Civil Unrest ResourcesAcos Alliance2021
Media Defence’s Training Resource HubMedia Defence2021
The Ugandan Hub for Investigative Media (HIM) African Centre For Media Excellence2015
Trauma Management ResourcesAcos Alliance, Dart Asia Pacific
Centre for Freedom of the Media (CFOM)Journalism Safety Research Network
Global Freedom of ExpressionColumbia University
Journalists’ SafetyGlobal Forum for Media Development
Resource Centre on Media Freedom in EuropeOBC TransEuropa
Digital SecurityRory Peck Trust
SafetyFree Press Unlimited
Online Violence Response HubCoalition against online violence